Thursday, May 21, 2020


Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2041 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Every organization has its financing strategies to operate their business. The term capital structure and leverage are the similar terms that how the investments should utilize to manipulate the assets and the whole business in the long run. The essay covers determinants of capital structure with the help of trade off theory (Kim,1978; Kraus and Litzenberger,1973;Miller and Modigliani,1963) , pecking order theory (Myers and Majluf,1984), agency cost theory (Jensen and Meckling,1976) and Miller and Modigliani theory which are significant to determine the main factors of capital structure which are growth, size, non debt tax shield, volatility in earnings in the age of the firm, tangibility, assets valuation and structure, uniqueness and profitability. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "AN EXPLANATION OF THE THEORIES ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE" essay for you Create order The theories and all these determinants of leveraging structure are discussed briefly below. All these theories are very significant and has a great influence on the capital structure of organizations under their assumptions therefore it is very necessary for firms to make their capital structure under the light of these theories .First of all trade off theory is considered which indicates tradeoff between debt and equity along with the presence of debt tax shield and bankruptcy cost. While in the pecking order theory leveraging structure consider the cost of financing, growth and profitability. The first choice for the firm is internal financing rather debt which usually the second choice and the last one is equity. The utilization of debt proportion in the financing on large scale lead the firms towards agency cost like debt payments and interest on the principle Eldomiaty (2007). The fourth theory is different and proposed that capital structure can be build by equities or d ebt or no matter with both along with the absence of debt tax shield and bankruptcy cost, the company value is unaffected and can follow any financing policy Modigliani and Miller(1963) . DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE GROWTH Titman and Wessels (1988) give detailed about the firms which operate through equity finance have power to invest accordingly to maximize wealth from the firms bondholders. The influence of agency cost is very high for firms in growing surroundings and creates opportunities for future investments. According to Myer instead of long term firm should relay on short term debt which helps the firm to eliminate agency issues because long term financing than negatively associated to future growth. According to Smith and Warner cost incurred by agencies in the firm can be restricted if the organization issue convertible debt which may associate positive opportunities of growth. Sheikh F Rehman et all ,(2006) found that the higher risk could lead to higher growth .The capital structure and growth has negative relation (Archer et al ,1966 cited by Shiekh F Rehman et all,2006) but a few researcher argued that growth and capital structure can be negative or positive in relation and totally relay on long and short term debt ratios (Hall et all,2000 cited by Shiekh F Rehman et all,2006) the long term debt ratio is negative associated with the growth while the short term debt ratio react positive to growth. Further investigation also indicating the same correlation of long and short term debt components the behavior is same as above researchers that the growth opportunities react positively with short period debt and negatively with long period debt Bevan and Danbolt( 2000). ASSEST VALUATION AND STRUCTURE The structure and value of assets are different in every firm and the different types of assets can also affect the capital structure of the firm. Few researchers suggests selling of secure debts may result increase in the value of equity from the current unsecured creditors and the firm with assets can issue more debt to enjoy the benefits of this opportunity (Mayers et all 1977 and Scott (1972),cited by Titmans and Wessels 1988).The conveniences in debt financing terms for creditors may peruse the organizations to use equity. And the overall finding by few authors like Ferry and Jones (1979),Kim and Sorensen (1986) and Titman and Wessels( 1988) indicated negative relationship between leverage structure and asset structure. The main reason for this negative correlation is the need of lower tax shields when the higher fixed assets occur. On the other hand few authors argued that the relationship is positive between capital structure and asset structure and the main cause propose for this finding is both long and short term debt ratio are positive with short-term and long term assets (Brealey and Myers 1990, cited by Shiekh F Rahman et all 2006).According to Rajan and Zingales (1995) the higher non-current assets may provide the opportunity of debt at very low rates and create the probable chance to secure the borrowing with the assets. Another finding by Chittenden et al.,1996 also proposed positivity in the relationship between short term debt ratio and asset structure. The higher the ratio of long term debt can lead the higher value on asset structure and in the same way if the short term debt ratio is lower the ratio of fixed assets lead the higher toward the total assets so in short the long term debt representing the positive combination while the short term is indicating negative relation (Hall et al.2000 cited by Shiekh F Rahman et all 2006) VOLATILITY IN EARNINGS IN AGE OF THE FIRM According to many researchers the decreasing function of volatility of earnings is a measure of firms optimum level of debt .But the findings of Barton et all, 1989 exposed about the age of the firm can matter. The older or well established business experienced higher debt ratio and low volatility in earnings. Hall et all (2000) discussed about the pecking order theory that the mature firms can easily arrange the equity and funds which results them to not relay on short or long term debt facilities. Although the research of ( Shiekh F Rahman et all 2006) support that the age is positive in relation to long and short term debt . SIZE: Holmes and Dunstan, 1994 in their findings revealed that banks tend to favour large ventures as compare to small ventures. Cassar (2004) gives various reasons for relationship between capital structure and venture size. Smaller ventures as compare with large ventures have high cost of information imbalances with its loaners.the reason for this is that small ventures will not have accurate and reliable financial statements . Romano,Tanewski and Smyrnios (2001) in their findings found that in family owned ventures, size of ventures is positively related to both the amount of debt and equity use for funding assets. Fama (1985) suggested that there is negative relation between monitoring cost and venture size. Amidu (2007 ) and Titman, S and R Wessels (1988) they both had similar findings that leverage and profit have negative relationship although they found positive correlation between leverage and tax. This also supports pecking order theory as higher profits increase level of internal reserves. Although it has been noted that larger companies are now taken securitized debt rather than long term bank debt this is one of the reason that banks now gives long term debt to small organizations. Profitability : Modigliani and Miller (1963) argue that debt is preferable than equity due to the deduction of tax from interest payments. Companies that are high profitable would choose high levels of debt to get the benefit of tax shield. Some researchers suggest that companies prefer raising capital from retained earning then from debt and last from raising new equity. Barbosa and Moraes (2003) argue that it is widely accepted that there is negative relation between the concept of capital structure and profitability .Marsh (1982) argues that the need that if equity were increased from profitability then debt funding would decrease. Some authors such as Jensen (1986) have argued that managers would prefer a low debt ratio. This shows that there is less demand for debt financing when a company is profitable, it has less need for debt financing (see,for instance, Rajan and Zingales, 1995). Hall et al. (2000) use this argument in their study on SMEs, when they hypothesize that profitabilit y would indicate less need for financing from debt. There are some authors (see Roden and Lewellen, 1995 ; Gale, 1972) where researchers have argued that the relationship between profitability and capital structure is positive. Non Debt Tax shield Masulis DeAngelo devised a model of optimum capital structure that integrates the affect of personal and corporate taxes and non debt related tax shields. In their study they found the substitutes for the tax benefits of debt financing that are tax deductions for investment tax credits and for depreciation. According to them less debt is found in capital structure of those companies who have large non debt tax shields. Ratios that indicate the non debt tax shields are as follows: Non debt tax shields over total assets, Depreciation over total assets, investment tax credits over total assets. Uniqueness: In March 1984 titman devised a model in which bankruptcy status is linked with companys liquidation decision, this means that the liquidation cost which company impose on their employee and client are relevant to their capital structure decisions. The relation between debt ratios and uniqueness is said to be negative because of the following reasons: In the event of liquidation the company who produce unique product may pass its customers and client high costs.And as the product is unique the customers may find it difficult to get alternate product and the companys employees specific skills may become useless. Ratios that indicate uniqueness are as follows Quit rates ,selling expenses over sales Research and development over sales. R D ratio calculates uniqueness because companies that sell products with close substitutes are likely to do less research and development since their innovations can be more easily duplicated. In addition, successful research and develop ment projects lead to new products that differ from those existing in the market. Firms with relatively unique products are expected to advertise more and, in general, spend more in promoting and selling their products. Hence, SEIS is expected to be positively related to uniqueness. However, it is expected that firms in industries with high quit rates are probably relatively less unique since firms that produce relatively unique products tend to employ workers with high levels of job-specific human capital who will thus find it costly to leave their jobs. Tangibility: The effect of the values of assets on companys leverage level is determined by the tangibility of asset, In the event of financial distress the value for debt is higher than the liquidation value of the asset, the lender face low risk with tangible asset so thereford charge low risk premium. Loaners face risk of moral hazard and negative selection due to the conflict of interest between debt providers and shareholders. To measure the tangibility some author use fixed assets to the total assets ratio. Tangilibily has negative relation with long term bank borrowing where as short term debt elements therefore tangibility has influence on bank borrowing whether long term or short term. Conclusion Recommendations: In this heading I have given conclusion of this assignment I made above and I ended this by giving my recommendations. Many determinants of capital structure have been identified to be influential for capital decision making of the organization. Profitability Tangibility of assets positively correlated with long term debt. no significant correlation was found in total current liabilities. During 1991-1997, larger companies preferred long-term securitized debt instead of long-term bank debt (Bevan and Danbolt, 2000) But the latter result proposed that bankruptcy Amidu, 2007 research revealed information of Banking sector of Ghana, in his research positive relation between tax, earning and size and leverage where as negative relation is found between profitability and leverage.According to Titman and Wessels, 1988, that small companies prefer short-term loan to rely on rather than long term loan which led them towards high cost. Thus Small firms are unable to cope with long te rm debt financing and the only viable option is to utilised short term borrowing facilities with this assumptions smaller firms are more likely to be in the bankruptcy phase. Uniqueness is negatively co-related with debt component of capital structure however no association is found among volatility, asset structure and non-debt tax shields. Operating income, Growth of total assets Bankruptcy cost has negative relation to leverage on the other hand debt tax shield helps to increase its leverage. Hence in long term debt finance growing firms suffer more, relative to other firms.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Vaccines, Cognitive Bias, And The Parent Pediatrician...

Alexis Telyczka HUM102 H01 10/05/16 Vaccines, Cognitive Bias, and the Parent-Pediatrician Relationship The articles â€Å"Cognitive Processes and the Decisions of Some Parents to Forego Pertussis Vaccination for Their Children† by J. Meszaros, D. Asch, J. Baron, J. Hershey, H. Kunreuther, and J. Schwartz-Buzaglo; â€Å"Illusion of Control: The Role of Personal Involvement† by Ion Yarritu, Helena Matute, and Miguel A. Vadillo; and â€Å"Responding to Parental Refusals of Immunization of Children† by Douglas S. Diekema help to describe the relationship between non-vaccinating parents and pediatricians, and the cognitive biases that run this relationship. One question addressed in the article â€Å"Cognitive Processes and the Decisions of Some Parents to Forego Pertussis Vaccination for Their Children† is, â€Å"What are the factors leading up to a parent deciding that they will not vaccinate their children?† (Meszaros, Asch, Baron, Hershey, Kunreuther, Schwartz-Buzaglo, 1996) This question is expanded upon further in â€Å"Illusion of Control: The Ro le of Personal Involvement† (Yarritu, Matute, Vadillo, 2014) and â€Å"Responding to Parental Refusals of Immunization of Children.† (Diekema, 2005) The question that connects these three papers, and the question that must be answered, is â€Å"What are the cognitive biases that dictate the likelihood of a parent vaccinating their child, and how can pediatricians be more aware of and attempt to rectify these biases?† One question raised in â€Å"Cognitive Processes and

The Role of HR Department in the Hiring of the New Employees Free Essays

Before turning to the factors affecting the proper organization of a Human Resources department and its role in hiring new employees, briefly need to stress the organization of the department itself. National Hellenic Land and Property Register consist of HR Executive Manager, two HR generalists, one HR coordinator and one HR assistant. The binding function of human resource management to business strategy at the operational, administrative and strategic level, facilitating managers and line workers and the continuous monitoring of developments, both internal as well as external highlighting role of Human Resources into a modern enterprise, and demonstrate the importance of the department. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of HR Department in the Hiring of the New Employees or any similar topic only for you Order Now Recruitment and selection of staff responsibilities are exclusively assigned to the Executive Manager of Human Resources. The manager is responsible for all actions relating to vacant or new job, promotions and personnel movements, and maintains the necessary number of employees by carrying out recruitment. The departures of employees and management mainly for reasons of retirement have resulted in the evacuation of jobs. Usually outgoing are people with enough experience in positions of responsibility. Thus the filling of these positions is usually done with internal recruitment. In particular, the HR manager is obliged to communicate in the form of circulars typically jobs that are to be met. The same procedure is followed in the event that created new jobs, but in which they can meet their employees with the knowledge and experience they possess. The various movements, promotions and retirements are leaving them uncovered jobs, responding mainly to simple tasks without supervision and accountability. To meet the specific positions, HR Department addresses recourse to external recruitment. As already mentioned, the decision to conduct large- scale recruitment is solely the responsibility of the manager. Usually in the medium term cared to cover positions internally (delay Promotions – assignment of multiple tasks), while intakes are in the long periodic basis by conducting external competitions. The HR manager is responsible for the organization and conduct of these competitions, and for notification of job vacancies nationwide. Analyzing the recruitment process shows that there are some points that need improvement. First, the company needs to unblock the recruitment process from the logic of the periodic competitions. It is appropriate to be recruited annually, based programming needs already done the Human Resources Department. Even through â€Å"external recruitment should be extended tank pumping concerned, possibly by linking the company with the finance departments of Greek universities to attract people most concerned with the essential object of activity of the National Hellenic Land and Property Register, given that as the situation today , the attraction is rather randomâ€Å"(Petrakis, 2012) , however, and certainly without any necessary filters. The only case where it is applied successfully recruiting process as described scientifically by the Human Resources Administration, is recruiting qualified professional staff. The recruitment process has been upgraded to the extent that a separate sub-division within the Directorate of Human Resources. The HR generalists are primarily responsible for the execution of all actions that contribute to the proper staffing of various jobs. It operates on two levels, the original recruiting agents, and this selection of employees for staffing positions of responsibility. During the recruitment process, successful candidates go through specific stages of selection, and which lead to the final hiring decision or rejection. These stages are interviewing executive sub address selection, which mainly outlines the psychosocial profile of the candidate, a test of perception and intelligence, control and verification of references accompanying the application documents and medical exams. Noted at this point that successful candidate’s recruitment is rarely rejected at selection stages. These are more important for recording various characteristics of employees, and simply recorded and archived for future use. The selection plays a very important role in the process of promoting employees and staffing positions of responsibility. At this level, historical data have occasionally recorded, account together with the data obtained from a second selection process done at that time to candidates who meet the set criteria. The latter process involves a detailed interview with each candidate, where he is asked to describe the reasons is interested in a specific location, and design and analysis of annual performance evaluation sheetsâ€Å".  (McConnell, 2005) The final conclusions of this choice lead to the promotion decision or rejection of the official. The selection procedures used by the National Hellenic Land and Property Register judged as adequate and relatively well designed. The tests and interviews are done by highly trained staff and have a high degree of reliability. It is useful to introduce assessment procedures of virtual projects, before taking up his new duties, in order to verify in practice if and when candidates for key positions are capable and experienced enough to cope with any difficulties. How to cite The Role of HR Department in the Hiring of the New Employees, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Theory Of Constraints Essay Research Paper This free essay sample

Theory Of Constraints Essay, Research Paper This book teaches you the thoughts and cognition for a extremist concern theory called the Theory of Constraints. This is a method to better production procedures. The reading is entertaining because it is written as a novel. It tells the narrative of a works director who has to better his concern in a limited clip. If he fails, the works will shutdown. The premiss is that Alex, a mill director, is given an ultimatum # 8212 ; dramatically better the public presentation of his mill in three months, or the installation will be shut down. Believing that traditional betterment schemes will neer do adequate difference in such a short clip, Alex must fall back to more despairing steps. He tracks down an old professor, now working as a adviser, and begs for advice. The advice of this adviser, Jonah, sets Alex and his squad, on a journey. We will write a custom essay sample on Theory Of Constraints Essay Research Paper This or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Alternatively of merely giving them the replies, Jonah asks them inquiries, and refuses to give more aid until each inquiry has been answered. Some of the lessons of the book include the undermentioned. When you are productive you are carry throughing something in footings of your ends. Every action that brings a company closer to its end is productive. The end of a fabrication organisation is to do money. Because of variableness, a mill can non be run at 100 % of capacity. Or, as Jonah says, ? the closer you come to a balanced works, the closer you come to bankruptcy. ? One of the biggest jobs in bettering your mill is roll uping the right information. Alex finally concludes that? we # 8217 ; re traveling to hold to accept the fact that we # 8217 ; re non traveling to hold perfect informations to work with. ? ? An hr lost at the constriction is an hr doomed for the full system? The existent cost of a constriction is the entire disbursal of the system, divided by the figure of hours the constriction produces. ? This suggests pull offing constrictions really closely. This thought has spawned legion consulting and package houses since the book was published. Non-bottlenecks do non necessitate to be regulated so closely, and should non be operated to maximise use. Jonah says that? triping a non-bottleneck to its upper limit is an act of maximal stupidity. ?

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Rise of Pop Up Food Outlet Essays - Food And Drink, Free Essays

The Rise of Pop Up Food Outlet Essays - Food And Drink, Free Essays The Rise of Pop Up Food Outlet When you are walking around the corner to go to your favorite spot with friends or family, suddenly you see a restaurant that you never seen before, everything is new and fresh. Trying out a restaurant like this most likely would be you r choice. Nowadays, these food outlets are popping up everywhere and bringing the food industries a new trend. Pop up food outlet actually have appeared in food industry for a long time. Back in 1960s, it was known as supper clubs which was also a fashionable trend of dining at that time. As its name, pop up restaurant often occur in unexpected place for a limited time. Pop up restaurant sometimes not only open just for business, it serve s many purposes to attract customers ' attention, such as charity events and showcasing of chefs. In 2014, the number of food and drink events on the Eventbrite platform increased by 47% compared to the previous year, the fastest growing trend was the pop-up dining experience (82% growth) . The trend of pop up food outlet have become a hit, however, behind the hit, there are different aspects of factors pushing it to the top. First of all, one of the biggest factors of the big hit of pop up food is the social medias. Companies and business in dividuals started to realize the importance of social media in the society and have tries to use them as a method of advertising and popularize. Apparently, it succeed . For restaurant like pop up food outlet, because of it s freshness, the " experiential diners " will become the influencer of their social zones. The society now is becoming a sharing society ' , when people have something new that not so many people have had, they want to share it to others . B usiness owners just need to manage a social media account, and put up signs in the restaurant saying Follow us on Instagram Facebook! ' . A not unfamiliar example would be Doughnut Time. It is a food shop just started in 2015 which focusing on making fresh and adoring doughnut products and it usually has a food truck as its store. Ever since it came out , it becomes a hit so fast and people are trying to find the food tru ck and standing in the queue so long just for some doughnut s . Doughnut Time founder Damian Griffiths said, " We ' ve got the benefit of social media, where Doughnut Time alone has around 100,000 followers ad we receive feedback instantaneously. " On the food trucks, you can always see signs of their social media accounts. After people buying those amazing-looking doughnuts, they will take a nice photo and p ost it with a hashtag or a tag. As social media becoming an indispensable part of people's lives, pop-ups steps into the society by variety of social avenues. Pop up restaurant is not only loved by customers, but also business owner because of its appropriate scale. Pop up restaurants always are just made up of a small but opened kitchen, a few tables and some simple decorations. It is the best choice for young chefs or people just started to touch this industry because you don't need a large amount of investment on the hardware' for a pop up restaurant, since it's not a long term investment. Also, for young chefs that are dreaming to have an own restaurant, a pop up restaurant is a good pathway for them to test out their recipes, menus and concepts of the restaurant. Because pop-ups often are exclusive for a short time, and their food is rare or unusual, customers are willing to pay a premium for their dinning experience. In this way, chefs and owners can get economically advantages from them. Pop up food outlet becomes a hot business form because of its economical advantages which are its affordability and higher check average. "The great thing about pop-ups that we find all across the board whether it's a pop-up store, pop-up restaurant or event is that they have this fear of missing out' quality to

Monday, March 2, 2020

How I Established My Romance Novels Subgenres

How I Established My Romance Novels Subgenres How I Established My Romance Novel's Subgenres Barbara James lives in New York, and is an avid romance reader and a former academic writer. In this article, she breaks down her latest romance novel's subgenres - sweet, contemporary, new adult - and explains the characteristics and importance of each one. How my novel is â€Å"new adult†New adult is for readers who have graduated from the young adult category, but who face different conflicts and questions than the rest of the 30+ adult group. They are still in the early stages of their lives, grappling with identity, relationships, and career.In Starting Over, Annelise is more conservative than most of her peers: she hopes to be married by the time she graduates university, and to become a stay-at-home mom by the time she’s in her mid-twenties. This is a more â€Å"old-fashioned† life plan than many people in their early-twenties have today, so Annelise struggles with how to fit in with her peers, and is constantly questioning her life plans and decisions.When my novel was finished and I was ready to start working with a professional editor, I knew I wanted someone who was a clear fan of the romance genre.Working with a development editor who also loves romance novelsA developmental editor can be instrumental in either helping you define your genre or tailoring your novel more to your chosen genre. And this was absolutely the case with my editor, Mary-Theresa Hussey. She worked for over 25 years as an executive editor at Harlequin, so she really knew her stuff. A developmental editor can be instrumental in helping you define your novel's genre. One way she challenged me fairly early on was with respect to age differences. Annelise could have been older, a graduate student, about 22–24 years old or Rick could have been younger, 24–25 years old. Ultimately, I made Rick ten years old, 28 to Annelise’s 18, because I wanted him to be ready to handle the responsibility of being the husband of a younger, stay-at-home-wife. But Mary-Theresa’s suggestion that I re-think their age difference helped me more firmly establish why the ten-year age gap was important to the story, strengthening each character in my mind.As her work history clearly suggests, Mary-Theresa is a fan of romance novels herself. Working with an editor who has a preference from romance novels was as important to me as their professional backgrounds, which is why I was so happy Reedsy permitted me to search for editors with specific keywords.Starting Over is available in paperback and on Amazon Kindle.Please share your thoughts, experien ces, or any questions for Barbara James in the comments below!

Friday, February 14, 2020

Choose two (2) activities from the list of seven (7) reflective, Assignment

Choose two (2) activities from the list of seven (7) reflective, analytical and experiential activities presented below. Each ac - Assignment Example I am a resident of United States and have gone to China for my job in a multinational company. There I have experienced a different culture altogether, which does not match with the culture of China. At first I was very much excited to embrace a new culture but slowly I understood that it is very stressful to get adapted and embrace a totally new culture. The first problem that was faced by me was the communication problem. But what really made me survive in the new country and saved me from my work and personal life complications, is the Zen meditation. I first came to know about the practice when one day a meditation class was arranged for the team members of the company. The meditation concept was decided by our employer, who understood our stressful condition and gave us the opportunity to improve our mind state and concentrate on our work. I was very much excited about the concept as I have never experienced such classes. The meditation class was held after the working hours. Af ter attending the class I liked the whole concept of the activity and was very much interested to know more about the activity (Thorby, 2011). Analysis Zen meditation is developed within the Japanese Zen Buddhism. The Zen practice is very effective to human body as it provides deep relaxation both physically as well as mentally. The meditation connects us with the subconscious part of our mind and assists us to link with our consciousness with the inner world of our mind. Thus, the practice helps us to connect with the inner garden of our mind in time and reduce stress to give us easiness. It takes us to that level where we can reduce our daily tension in our work and non-work life. When we are contended with our action, behavior and have reduced stress that we are going through, we improve our connection with the outside world. This increases the joy and vitality of our life and makes us more creative. This will increase the vitality and joy of our life and makes us concentrate on the creativity. The regular practice enhances and strengthens the self concentration, brings improvement in the balance of our body and helps to increase our mental strength. It assists in integrating those parts of our body, which has blocked vitality and perception that provides us with safer platform in life. The meditation practice mainly focuses on the central part of our body and mind. The practice is very easy and can be exercised easily be practiced without having any religious inclinations. The concept was first developed in Soto School and in this school Zen means sitting. The practice is also called ZaZen which gives us the meaning true sitting (Stevenson, 2012). It is totally a new culture to me and following the Soto tradition and meditating in the same way as they do is quite impossible if not practiced well. We all know that as an instrument of feeling and perception, our body is the main focus of our mind. If our body is relaxed we are bound to stay happy. Any type o f stress or tension disturbs our relaxed minds and thus it also harms our thought process and thus we become irritated very fast. Thus, it is very important to make our body relaxed, so that it does not affect our mind and thought process. Another critical activity of our body is breathing and apart from body it is